Invasive mechanical ventilation induces, on the preterm neonate’s lungs, an interruption of both growth and alveolar maturation, as a direct consequence of the inflammation caused by the prolonged ventilatory support, which can increase the risk of development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (1).
To reduce the incidence of this complication, the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation has been investigated over the past 40 years. The application of a continuous positive pressure to the airways (CPAP) is a noninvasive respiratory support technique that has been widely investigated more recently as a primary respiratory support and as a post extubation management strategy for those neonates at risk for respiratory distress syndrome (2,3)
Distinctive anatomical and physiological aspects of the neonate’s airway system
The rationale behind the efficacy of CPAP lies in some distinctive anatomical and physiological conditions of the neonate’s airway system. The neonate, as a matter of fact, is more inclined to airway obstruction and has more disadvantageous characteristics that make managing the work of breathing more difficult, such as:Continua a leggere